Monday, August 24, 2020
Formwork System Example Formwork System Ã¢â¬ Article Example Presentation Cases of solid structures crumbling while under development have been occurring since the time concrete began being placed in formwork. Causes and instances of such sort of basic disappointments have been recorded just as reported in a few diaries, articles and messages. This report will concentrate on breakdown of a 16 story constructing that occurred on 25th of January 1971 at 2000 Commonwealth Avenue in Boston, MA (Nawy, 2008).The task The condo structure was comprised of cast set up with a fortified solid level chunk having a center deep opening. For the most part this kind of development is normal with structures having multi-stories since they just need an insignificant chunk width which decreases the general height of the structure. The 2000 Commonwealth Avenue building had a plan of 16 stories comprehensive of a mechanical room on a 5-foot creep space on its rooftop. Moreover, the structure additionally included 2 degrees of storm cellar stopping. The principal f loor included subordinate spaces, pool along with one condo, while the second up to sixteenth floor had 132 condos (Nawy, 2008).Type of structure/structure-The technique utilized in development was that of a level plate waffle piece having strong chunks at its segment tops. This was really the absolute first time mechanized carts were utilized in pouring of such a structure as this. Along these lines the crumbled floor was the first one above evaluation propped up on 2 levels of shores totaling 22Ã¢â¬â¢ high. The heaviness of the carriages was 3000 lb stacked having been run at 12mph.There was a sum of 8 carts when the structure fizzled with around 500 cubic yards of cement having been set as of now. Examinations later laid the fault only on lacking requirements in the formwork to resist horizontal forces.Cause of failureThe disappointment was because of the accompanying issues; engineersÃ¢â¬â¢ basic details were not followed, there was no solid structure quality just as shoring and if present, it was expelled rapidly. What's more, support was inappropriately positioned, negligible control of building site, absence of designing or engineering review done lastly the city of Boston didn't give sufficient investigation (Nawy, 2008).Consequences-The breakdown brought about the passing of 4 specialists and 20 others harmed. There was additionally decimation and loss of building materials and other resources.In end, a few exercises can be gained from this disappointment, for example, the significance of holding fast to building controls at each phase of development. On the off chance that sufficient measures were actualized to guarantee that unique and legitimate structure was followed, disappointment would not have occurred (Nawy, 2008).ReferencesEdward, N. (2008). Solid Construction Engineering Handbook. New York: CRC Press.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
At the point when a business loses the drive to seek after and hold clients, it loses its spirit and hence the option to exist. No business can work, flourish or thrive without a solid client base. In the client point of view hypothesis BSC clarifies that it isn't just fundamental to know who the objective clients are and how a business can all the more likely serve that client base. The BSC distinguishes three essential methods of offering types of assistance to clients to be decided scorecard framework. Operational greatness stresses low costs, and accommodation ( Nevin 2003). Item authority centers around giving theÃ¢ best item in the market. In client closeness the business focuses on the improvement of long haul associations with the client, doing whatever is important to realize what it is that the client genuinely needs. It does as such while keeping up however much information as could reasonably be expected of its clients. The explanation behind these endeavors in obtaining better client information descends than the point that the organizations are endeavoring to give however much fulfillment to the clients as could reasonably be expected. Different reasons incorporate client reliability and the requirement for more piece of the pie. (Balancedscorecard. organization. ) Interior PROCESS PERSPECTIVE REVISITED: This territory centers around recognizable proof of the things that would should be done so as to keep on increasing the value of the clients and at last to the investors (Nevin 2003). The inward procedure means to serve the client and increment the complete estimation of the association, just as keep record of the organizations progress. The teamÃ¢â¬â¢s objective is basically to grow better items, to discover better methods of assembling better items. To discover better methods of conveying their items, and to discover better methods of conveying better administrations after the items had been conveyed. LEARNING AND GROWTH PERSPECTIVE REVISITED: This may really be the most significant part of the whole procedure. Associations would get the extent that their workers could take them. A group that needs information will most likely be unable to give the essential administrations required by the clients. Thusly certified exertion must be made to keep workers side by side of vital data. What's more, that is the thing that the learning and development viewpoint attempts to characterize. It accentuates that data be made accessible to the representatives. It requires the representatives abilities be as sharp as essential. It doesn't need representatives to be overlooked. Again the key here is that any association would just go the extent that the workers could take it. With sufficient consideration and instruction, workers can just improve the situation for the organization. It is critical to call attention to that the BSC framework doesn't overlook the monetary point of view. In any case, the key is that when an organization has fulfilled different goals, that organization stand a quite decent chance of doing great monetarily. Parity SCORECARD AS A STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: Obviously putting a business and the executives procedure is significant, yet no technique will work in the event that it doesn't really get actualized. So the initial phase in settling theÃ¢ issue of non-usage, is to distinguish what the potential issues towards execution might be, and afterward address those issues. As per fortune magazine (1999) about 70% of procedures are wretched, so how might it be executed better. Both the group and the administration must focus on the four obstructions: the vision boundary, the individuals hindrance, the asset boundary, and the administration boundary. (1) VISION BARRIER: To beat the vision boundary, representatives must not be kept in obscurity. The BSC needs the board to be clear with regards to what the vision is. At the point when conceivable spot a figure on theÃ¢ vision . For example if the objective is to fabricate items without deserts 90 % of the time, at that point it might be made more clear by expressing precisely that. That figure of 90% makes an interpretation of the vision to a level that couldn't be misjudged. Give the representatives the suitable information base and key structure, that makes the whole vital goal simpler to follow. The board ought to encourage an all out comprehension of the methodology and the entire structure so as to empower all the colleagues to completely comprehend the technique and in this manner progress in the direction of accomplishing it as a unit. (Kaplan and Norton).
Saturday, July 25, 2020
Fall 2016 New Student Series Part 6 Manasi Akhilesh Nanavati COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog
Fall 2016 New Student Series Part 6 Manasi Akhilesh Nanavati COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog In our sixth edition of the e-introductions, meet Manasi Akhilesh Nanavati. Manasi loves to dance, wants to one day produce a television series about societys role in development issues and social evolution, and most looks forward to making it in New York. Welcome Manasi! Youll do great here. Full Name: Manasi Akhilesh Nanavati Age: 28 Degree Program: MPA in Development Practice Anticipated Graduation Year: Spring 2018 Hometown: Vadodara, Gujarat, India Undergraduate University: The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda Undergraduate Major: Environmental Science Undergraduate Graduation Year: 2010 Whatâs your professional background? After my Bachelor of Science, I worked in a private environmental consultancy in my hometown Vadodara where I assessed various commercial and industrial project proposals for their potential environmental impact. I shortly left for my MS in Environmental Science in UIS (Illinois) and earned a Graduate Public Service Internship at Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) which was the other side of the table for me. I assessed data of state laboratories for their accreditation status with IEPA and also peeped into an extensive audit process. After I graduated from UIS, I worked with Greenvolved, LLC an NGO where I assessed community led project proposals for their applicability in the proposed developing country. These professional experiences summed up to expose me to the workings of both private and government agencies in and for both developed and developing countries approaching various issues from both top-down as well as bottom-up direction. I returned to India and began to work for the World Resources Institute (WRI) in Mumbai where as a research consultant, I assist in projects to address gaps in local governance and articulate climate change considerations in regional planning which was my key professional interest from the very beginning. Did you apply to SIPA to change careers or to gain experience in a career path you already have experience in? The answer is both. I am already working in the field of urban resilience and sustainable development that extends to policy reformations. However, my academic background is pure science and I realize that I need to sharpen my technical side, especially on the political and economic front. SIPA offers perfect blend of courses and professional opportunities that cater to my career interests. What was your reaction when you found out you were accepted to SIPA? I was in my office when I saw an email with a subject line âyour decision is ready to be viewedâ and the world suddenly stopped moving (no exaggeration)! I prepared myself and opened the letter. I, with great anxiety, took a fleeting glimpse at it to make sure that I do not read phrases and words like âimpressive BUTâ or âregretfullyâ in the first few lines. I actually did not even notice confetti. When I read âcongratulationsâ, my face turned red with all the excitement, I took deep breath and called my father. I read the whole letter only after I called my family members. Why did you say yes to SIPA? I had applied only to SIPA since MPA-DP matched all my academic aspirations at this stage of professional and academic pursuit. It felt right for me in all senses. As soon as SIPA agreed to have me, there was no question of not agreeing to it. Also, I cannot neglect the New York City as one of the beautiful reasons. What do you most look forward to as a graduate student at SIPA? I look forward to three things â" 1. Sharpening my analytical skills and grasp on multifaceted development space 2. Having profound professional network, and 3. Making it in New York Do you have any apprehensions about starting graduate school? Only one â" finance. It is a huge expense for me and my family which I hope will turn out to be a meaningful and worth investment. What are your goals after SIPA? I intend to engage in projects that organizations like UNDP and the Rockefeller Foundation are funding in developing countries to ensure scientifically robust and socially inclusive policies and development practices that maintain resource pool for the future generations. I could see myself working with organizations like the Earth Institute, ARUP or UNDP in future. I am also interested in teaching and should an opportunity present itself, I would take up a teaching position and/or engage in academic research projects. In later part of my life, I would like to extend my reach and produce television series or short films that make people envision their roles in a society as active participants of development and social evolution and not faceless entities at the receiving end of political will. If you could change one small thing about your community, country or the world, what would it be? I would want us all to realize consequences of smallest of actions that we take in our daily routine. Since I read Garrett Hardinâs âTragedy of the Commonsâ, I have been subconsciously analyzing my own choices and reasons that lead to them. Not to put any pressure of morality whatsoever but if we could find it in our capacity to be a little more aware and a little more thoughtful in our actions, our personal gain will multiply and in addition, the world will be a better place. Tell us something interesting about yourself: I have inherited inclination toward art, especially theatres and music.I like watching movies and love discussing them afterwards. I am a sincere admirer of regional literature Gujarati literature in particular due to greater exposure to it. Having parents who both worked in All India Radio, I have my share of exposure to radio programs, production and direction of advertisements, plays, featured talks as well as type of voice modulations; as a result of which resounding voices immediately capture my attention. I have considerable capacity to watch TV series all day long, walk long distances at a single stretch, drive for hours. I am practically unable to resist dancing and laughing hard on a good witty joke! Share your story by completing the New Student Self-Interview Form today! View all of Fall 2016s interviews here.
Friday, May 22, 2020
Title IX states, Ã¢â¬Å"No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving Federal financial assistanceÃ¢â¬ . The law also prohibits retaliation against an individual who, in good faith, asserts his or her rights under Title IX or other applicable federal laws and state laws prohibiting illegal discrimination. Title IX was established around discrimination based on gender in 1972, and promotes equality between men and women in education. Congress developed Title IX in order to spark the act of going against sexual discrimination at academic institutes that were federally funded to promote theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Women were looked at as physically unattractive and were seen as Ã¢â¬Å"selfishÃ¢â¬ because they were not as cooperative as men while on a team. Women had to raise their own money, wear their physical educat ion (gym) suit or make their own uniforms, while the boys were given uniforms or had help raising money. Girls played with no audience or crowd because parents would go see their sons play and wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t watch their daughters compete. Discrimination towards women is not only seen in schools, but also in the military. For example, 90 percent of the women enlisted in the navy are verbally harassed and 61 percent of them are physically harassed sexually (Violence in America, 1999). Before the passage of Title IX, girls were 7% of the participating students playing sports in high school. After the passage of Title IX, girls were 41.5% of the participating students playing sports in high school. In other words, the participating rate went from 300,000 to 2.7 million students competing in sports, which is an increase of over 800 percent (Feminist Majority Foundation, 2014). Because sports are very popular, this is one of the best ways for women to showcase their power and ability to be as skilled as men are. This lessened the amount of sexism at the time. When people are more unbiased about the abilities that females have, it gives women confidence, so they are convinced of their talent, and strive for greater
Friday, May 8, 2020
Time to Care If America is the greatest country in the world for its inhabitants, Colorado must be the best place in the United States for whoever is lucky to call it home. However, if you ever decide to have a child anywhere in Colorado, you will find out that it is not as great as you might have thought. As of today, the United States accompanies the non-developed Suriname (South America) and Papua New Guinea (Australia) in the group of the only three countries in the world that do not offer any kind of paid maternity leave, as reported recently by ABC News. If some American states, like California and New Jersey, are correcting that mistake with proper state laws, Colorado falls far behind. As the liberal state that allows you to growÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It would work similarly as what happens with taxes that go towards unemployment insurance; however, only those who decided to join would have that collection taken. Therefore, any participant could require a paid parenta l leave with the birth of a child. The senate denied the bill and buried Colorado in the limbo of states where having a kid is even more challenging to the parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ life. Although the majority of the cost of the program would come from the participantsÃ¢â¬â¢ income, the major concern of the politicians who disapproved the bill still related to the costs of a project. Local businesses also present the same concern about paid maternity leave. However, both groups Ã¢â¬â always so worried about monetary outcomes Ã¢â¬â should see the big picture. In the past years, Colorado saw a decline of its birth rate, which is also below the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s average. According to the latest National Vital Statistics Report, births in Colorado stopped increasing in the past ten years; to explain that trend, the Ã¢â¬Å"Ages and StagesÃ¢â¬ study, from the Cassandra Report Ã¢â¬â specialized in researching trends among the millennials generation Ã¢â¬â showed that 34% of American a dults born after 1985 do not want to have kids. The unwillingness to give up flexibility is the most cited reason between the participants; in a state with no paid maternity leave, you need to be very flexible to have a kid. What does that have to do with economy, though? In the
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(24) " is growing day by day\." A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS BY EMMANUEL PANPALAN RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED IN FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF DEGREE OF BA (HONS) ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE LEVEL 6/ YEAR 3 IN TEESSIDE UNIVERSITY SEGI UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA 14 DECEMBER 2012 TEESSIDE UNIVERSITY BUSINESS SCHOOL A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS UNDERGRADUATE STUDIES PROJECT REPORT CERTIFICATION 1. I confirm that the work in this Project Report is original and has been carried out by me as part of my programme of study. 2. We will write a custom essay sample on Determinants of Satisfaction on Smartphones Among Students (Malaysia) or any similar topic only for you Order Now I confirm that all secondary material has been properly acknowledged by me and referenced in this work. Signed:Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. Name: EMMANUEL A/L PANPALAN Date: 14th December 2012 Course: B. A. (HONS) IN ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE 2 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS ACKNOWLEGDEMENT Thank you is a very small word compare to the support that I get for completing this research paper. Firstly, I would like to thank Ms. Hung Mun Siew for un-dividing time, advices, comments and encouragements which really a booster to perform well. God bless her works. Secondly, I would like to convey my gratitude to my parents for being there and providing Love, resource, space, necessity and moral support at needed times. Thirdly, I would like to convey my gratitude to my friends who are there for me, who I can call at any time for their advice for fulfilling this paper. Fourthly, to all respondents for my survey, thank you for helping me through responding to the survey that been distributed. Lastly, to the Almighty God who had given me this opportunity to fulfill this task. -Merci Beacoup- 3 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS ABSTRACT Smart phones usage and sales have bomb overnight. Smart phones are expected to be as influential as it will be seen as necessity rather than luxury. There are few advantages of smart phones one of it is wireless internet, interactivity, mobility and flexibility, furthermore, facilitates the potential adoption of new mobile applications. Therefore, it is necessary to know the behavior of users and the possibility of user to satisfy with their smart phones. The purpose of this study is to find out what really drives satisfaction which is usefulness, understandability, ease of use and enjoyment of smart phones. This research has to be done to maintain and to hike up the usage and sales. This research could be helpful to industry and users of all smart phones technology based industries. In this research, 250 questionnaires will be passed to SEGI college student to answer and the result will be analyzed using SPSS software. 4 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS CONTENTS TITLE PAGE PAGE NUMBER 1 PROJECT REPORT CERTIFICATION 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 3 ABSTRACT 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS 5 LIST OF TABLES 8 LIST OF DIAGRAMS 9 CHAPTER1 1. 1 1. 2 1. 3 1. 1. 5 1. 6 1. 7 INTRODUCTION Background of Study Problem statement Motivation of Study Research Objectives Research Questions Hypotheses Significance of study 10 11 12 12 12 13 13 13 5 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS 1. 8 1. 9 Structure of Dissertation Summary 14 15 CHAPTER 2 2. 0 2. 1 2. 2 2. 3 2. 4 2. 5 2. 6 2. 7 Literature Review Introduction Satisfaction Usefuln ess Understandability Enjoyment Ease of use Conceptual Framework Summary 16 16 16 17 19 21 23 25 25 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3. 0 3. 1 3. 2 3. 3 3. 4 3. 5 3. 6 3. 7 3. 8 3. 9 3. A Introduction Research Design Research Methodology Questionnaire Design Sample Sampling Frame Data collection Method Statistical technique Pilot test Limitation Summary 26 27 27 28 30 31 31 32 33 34 34 6 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS 4. 1 4. 2 4. 3 4. 4 4. 5 4. 6 Introduction Rate of Response Demographic Details Factor Analysis Regression Summary 35 35 35 35 41 50 51 CHAPTER 5 5. 1 5. 2 5. 3 5. 4 5. 5 APPENDIX REFERENCES ETHICAL CONCLUSION Introduction Conclusion Recommendation Reflection Summary 52 52 52 52 53 54 55 65 69 7 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS LIST OF TABLES TABLE Table 3. 8. 1 Table 3. 8. 2 Table 4. 2. 1 Table 4. 2. 2 Table 4. 3. 1 Table 4. 3. 2 Table 4. 3. 3 Table 4. 3. 4 Table 4. 3. 5 Table 4. 4. 1 Table 4. 4. 2 Table 4. 4. 3 Table 4. 4. 4 Table 4. 5 DESCRIPTION Case Processing Summary Reliability Statistics Case Processing Summary Reliability Statistics Gender Education Field of study Brand Age analysis Correlation for Usefulness Correlation for Understandability Correlation for Enjoyment Correlation for Ease of Use Regression PAGE NUMBER 33 33 35 35 36 37 39 39 41 43 44 47 49 51 8 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS LIST OF DIAGRAMS DIAGRAM 4. 3. 1 4. 3. 2 4. 3. 4 4. 3. 5 DESCRIPTION Gender Education Field of Study Brand PAGE NUMBER 37 39 41 42 9 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS CHAPTER 1 Ã¢â¬â INTRODUCTION This chapter discusses the background of study, Problem statement, motivation of study, research objective, research question, hypotheses, significance of study, and structure of dissertation. 1. 1 Ã¢â¬â Background of study In this world where rapid is not a word and when technology is no longer a luxury but a necessity. It is really important for the manufacturer to come up with innovative idea to match new technological world. Smartphone is expected to be a conqueror in mobile phones world as the user of Smartphone application is growing day by day. You read "Determinants of Satisfaction on Smartphones Among Students (Malaysia)" in category "Papers" The reason smart phone is so influential is because of its functions. As example, wireless internet connection, interactivity, mobility and flexibility, which also potential to new mobile application. Currently, the usage of cell phones has raised up rapidly and a drastic change over past decade. Smart phones currently are used to enhance social relationships. And they have change due to time and advancement of technology. A study shows that 43% of Australian and 17% of Malaysian are using smartphone and that number is increasing rapidly (Ellis 2011). Some of examples of smartphones are the iPhone by Apple Inc, Galaxy series by Samsung, blackberry, HTC and many more. Smart phones are designed in an utmost way where their functions and features would match the needs of their users in these case are students. Smartphones function as both mobile communication devices and computers, and allow people to use them to connect to the internet. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s expected that internet-capable mobile devices will be the most common way for people to access the internet by 2013? (Ellis 2011) 10 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS According to an industry review by The Insight Research Corporation (IRC) the Asia-Pacific region has had a compound annual growth rate of 17. 9 percent over the past decade, buoyed by China an d India. There are over 800 million cell phone subscribers today in China alone. (Anusha Sethuraman, May 6, 2011). Moreover, dependence on social relationships, the technologies are improved to suit peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s desire and needs. These ever improving technologies tend to change the lifestyle and habits of their users who would demand for more improvements. The foregoing process would be cyclic and would not end unless other new technologies are developed and replace the original technologies. Thus, when publishing changes, society will also change. Global sales are ramping up too. By the second quarter of 2011 mobile phone sales to end users totaled 325. 6 million units, a 13. 8 percent increase from the same period in 2010, according to Garner, Inc. Of these sales, 19 percent were accounted for by smart phones. To catch up these figures it is really vital to build satisfaction among users. (Mark Brownlow, April 2012) it is expected a certain matter would make user to continue support thus, sustain in the business. 11 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS 1. 2 Ã¢â¬â Problem statement Although, the usage of smartphone is widely accepted in Malaysian lifestyle, there a still UN-satisfy people who still have a doubt in using a smartphone, and people who using one donÃ¢â¬â¢t realize all this expect in their life. This research believed to help to boost the usage of smartphones and company who manufacturing improve in times to come. 1. 3 Ã¢â¬â Motivation of study The purpose of this research is to investigate the key factors that determine the satisfaction of smart phone among students in Malaysia. In other word, determinants of students will be studied using four factors, Perceived usefulness, perceived understandability, perceived enjoyment, and perceived ease of use. Simply the Motivation of the study is to understand the need of users which determining their satisfaction. . 4 Ã¢â¬â Research objectives: (R01) : To identify the factors that drives satisfaction to use the Smartphone applications, (R02) : To identify whether understandability on smart phones will effect satisfaction (R03) : To identify whether easy of using the smart phones will effect satisfaction (R04) : To identify whether enjoyment of using Smart phones effect satisfaction 12 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTI ON ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS 1. 5 Ã¢â¬â Research question: (RQ1) : Does the usefulness of smart phones will lead to satisfaction? RQ2) : Does understandability on smart phones will effect satisfaction? (RQ3) : Does handiness of using smart phones effect satisfaction? (RQ4) : Does enjoyment plays main a role in satisfaction in smart phones? 1. 6 Ã¢â¬â Hypothesis: H1a: usefulness has impact on satisfaction H1b: understandability has impact on satisfaction H1c: enjoyment has impact on satisfaction H1d: ease of using has impact on Satisfaction 1. 7 Ã¢â¬â Significance of study: To improve users and industry of smart phone, this research will open up bigger scope of knowledge regarding smart phones and their usage. It will be particularly be beneficial for future telecommunication companies and phone makes. They can work together to provide better service in rapidly changing world. 13 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS 1. 8 Ã¢â¬â Structure of Dissertation There are five chapters discussed in this study. Chapter one is the introduction where the background of smartphones is explained briefly, followed by the problem statement of the dissertation, the research aim and objectives, the scope of this study, and also the contribution of this study. In chapter two of this study, secondary sources are used to collect the information on determinants which make students satisfy with their smartphones. The critical points of this study are reviewed using the findings in the journal articles theoretically. This chapter is meant to update the user of this study with the related literatures of this research and also as a guide for future studies. Chapter three of this research is the research methodology. In this chapter, the research design and methodology are discussed. Also the purpose and design of the survey instrument which is the questionnaires has been explained. The conceptual framework, pilot testing, data collection method, sample used for this study, data analysis, and also the limitation of research methodology has been explained. Next in chapter four the data analysis results are discussed. The data gained from the survey are analyzed using the SPSS software. The findings on the relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variable were tested along with the hypotheses. Finally chapter five of this study is focused on the conclusion and recommendations of this study. Relevant tables and diagram has also been included in this research for easier understanding of the user of this study. 14 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS 1. 9 Ã¢â¬â Summary In conclusion, as above the background, Problem statement, motivation, objectives, questions, hypotheses and significance has been identified for the research. 15 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 0 Ã¢â¬â Introduction This chapter discusses literature review, summary and conceptual framework. That related to research. 2. 1 Ã¢â¬â Satisfaction In 1965Ã¢â¬â¢s Rolling stones famed with a song called Satisfaction, which goes I canÃ¢â¬â¢t get no satisfaction, I canÃ¢â¬â¢t get no satisfaction, Ã¢â¬ËCause I try and I try and I try and I try I canÃ¢â¬â¢t get no, I canÃ¢â¬â¢t get no. that portrays perfectly and speaks about human nature. Although it just a song lyric, it raise a question what exactly is satisfaction they also speaks of difficulties an individual might face from trying try to get satisfaction from consumption, usage, institution, government and relationship. (Richard, 2010) According to oxford ictionaries defined satisfaction as fulfillment of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s wishes, expectations, or needs, or the pleasure derived from it. Satisfaction is derived from Latin Satis, where it means (enough) and Facere means (to do or make). It can be taken as a product or service where one makes a point to say enough I am fulfilled. Customer satisfaction can be precisely de fined as psychological state which happen when emotion of surrounding disconfirmed expectation is combined with the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings about the experience before and present. (Richard, 1981) 16 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS The user satisfaction which is student in this case is really important because it relate to other important variables. This often proved as a success on how a determinant relate with the satisfactions. This will unconsciously lead to success, sustainability, intention to buy more, and customer loyalty. It is important factor to remember also that a consumer who satisfied will have a continuous expectation and to meet it up is a challenge for any business. (Liao c, 2009) and satisfaction is really vital for students as their heart can change so fast according to circumstances. 2. Ã¢â¬â Usefulness In this rapid changing world, it is hard to sustain the interest of students for one certain thing. For example: if smartphones are not as needed by student they might switch to notepad and so on. So it is really important for any smart phone producer to pack their stuff which can still keep the flame. Usefulness is rooted back from the word useful which means capable of doing or achievin g something positive that brings advantage (Macmillan Dictionary, 2011). It goes same to the smart phones usefulness if the usefulness is significant there is chance it can create satisfaction if a particular task could be done. Hsi-Peng Lu, Philip Yu-Jen Su, 2009) A user will believe that a system has a positive use-performance relationship if the system has high perceived usefulness (Davis, 1989). 17 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS Other than that, a smart phones study that is based on 7,275 smart phone customer experiences, found that smart phone users who access social media sites like Facebook and Twitter through their mobile device report a 783 satisfaction rating. This is about 22 points higher than those who do not access social networks on their smart phones. This shows the usefulness do impact the satisfaction (Daily tech. com, 2012). In other research by Hsi-Peng Lu, and Philip Yu-Jen Su, 2009 stated that value has significant value is on customer satisfaction. It also state that value is at heart of what consumers needs from business. (Babin et al. , 1994) In other research it been said as new world emerging there will be a difference in education design too. Learning design is perceived as a lifelong journey of learning and continues education. This is not simple, as learning environment also has to take into account. It is difficult matter where learner and technologies come together, in both party must come together and adapt their framework. Nevertheless organizations and students should know mobile learning is really essential and it is one form of satisfaction where everything can be done anywhere. (Ana Dias, 2012) Lastly, itÃ¢â¬â¢s great to see how many uses a smartphones can provide a student, Mobile map, satellite view, Wikipedia items, cultural events, photos sharing, parking places, movies, restaurants, social media, It can also be said world is in a palm. All this necessity that smartphone met create satisfaction not only with students but even working adults. (Martijn Pannevis, 2007) 18 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS 2. 3 Ã¢â¬â Understandability Understandability is an act where user knows how to use particular applications and knows the elements of smart phones. In a July 2011 Modapt Inc Morrissey Company conducted an online survey focused on the mobile Web experience. People like using their smart phones to obtain information, but are often frustrated by trying to navigate clumsy user interfaces and download data. And the result shows in that understandability do plays vital role in satisfaction. (Seybold report, 2011) And another Malaysian report stated that understandability do make a differences in creating satisfaction. It stated that men are more indulge in gaming and accessories which can be really fast frustrated if they canÃ¢â¬â¢t understand the system works which cause less satisfaction. (Mohd Azam Osman, 2011) In another study behavior of certain user is taken into account. The main one is Anxiety it is refer as negative emotions in cognitive states. These emotions evoke actual or imaginary interactions with mobile using. Igbaria,Iivari (1995, p. 593) goes on to say, person who experience high level anxiety are more fond to behave rigidly then person who have low. In short, people are expected to be relax and avoid any kind feelings that invoke anxious (Compeau and Higgins, 1995), especially when they operating smartphones. On the other hand person who understand and comfortable are more likely to feel satisfy. As an example, when the customers are in payment processes, they worry about pressing the wrong buttons on the so much app and buttons, thus losing money. In other word negative emotions may come from imagination or physical experiences. Number of previous studies found that 19 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS anxiety had a significantly negative influence on information system adoption (Compeau et al. , 1999; McFarland and Hamilton, 2006). In another study handling and understanding smart phone refers to individual assessment of their ability to perform a specific task while using their smart phone. Several studies have found that emotions can constraint people from performing skillfully. In other words people who feel anxiety gives a negative effect on one are perceived understandability thus, creating dissatisfaction (Compeau et al. 1999; Fagan et al. , 2003). Several researchers examined that the greater the user understand and capability belief will lead to the greater the userÃ¢â¬â¢s intrinsic motivation (Compeau and Higgins, 1995; Deng et al. , 2004). In addition, a person can also have believes, that an action surely has a reaction, but if a person has entertain seri ous doubts about whether they can perform the necessary activities. Information about outcomes does not influence of their behavior, it is also necessary to understand the impact of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s perceived level of skillfulness, under stability on the expectations of the smart phones (1977, p. 93) 20 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS 2. 4 Ã¢â¬â Enjoyment In this current age Smartphones are playing a vital role in society. Application as touch and voice activated or, multiple apps have been developed for various purposes, catering work and enjoyment. Apps allow a person to shop, read, play games, listen music, send and share information, photos and stay virtually connected with all of our family and friends. The available apps that been cater for use is extends beyond of the limits of our imagination, which most also use smartphones as mindless distraction to idle time away. (Lynn, 2012) The effect of enjoyment/ fun could not be overruled in smart phone using especially for students. Different concepts have been used to explain the importance of student emotions in adoption of smart phones Fun (Pagani, 2004) Enjoyment (Curran and Meuter, 2007), and Perceived Enjoyment (Nysveen, 2005), According to Kim (2008) enjoyment is a very important predictor of the adoption of smartphone. This opinion agreed by (Fang et al, 2005) who found the perceived fun influences student and customersÃ¢â¬â¢ attitude but only for gaming tasks. Meanwhile, the effect of fun was found not to be so important for general and important business task. (Bruner, 2005) continue to say that fun is positively influenced by ease of use and that has been even more important effect on the attitude toward the act that usefulness. This opinion have been supported by (Curran, 2007) who says enjoyment is more important than utility. 21 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS In other research, when it comes to banking context (Hong et al, 2008) experimented smartphones usage and came to conclusion that enjoyment plays a big part in attitude towards the context using of smart phones information services and entertainment services. In addition, (Dabholkar, 2002) continue to say enjoyment can be said that fun can be forerunner to attitude. In same meaning (Verkasalo, 2008) says that enjoyment has a clear positive effect on attitude towards usage of smartphones, as tested ranging from e-mailing to instant messaging. Besides that, (Nysveen et al, 2005) portrayed that enjoyment is a vital determinant which can create satisfaction of users especially students in using smart phones. The report goes on to say that enjoyment is really strong determinant of intentions to use for female than males (Pagani, 2004) In addition, (Pagani, 2004) create a model where enjoyment is a really an important factor towards satisfaction in using smart phones. Moreover, for students it is really vital to have enjoyment in life. 22 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS 2. Ease of use In this current world, time become so limited where people using time as good as possible, due to that, students have very high urge for convenience where they are able to use their smartphones any time, any place (Genova, 2010). Since there are great revival in mobile revolution, the smart phones is now portable, it is tied to individuals not one place (Holub et al, 2010). In (Lu, 2009) report says that consumers can perform smartphones transaction in very bizarre circumstances which have severe time constraints, such as, waiting for friend or waiting for traffic unlike eskstop and laptop place in home or one certain place. This indirectly makes users to become highly dependent on smartphones to get informationÃ¢â¬â¢s, by browsing and clicking to access their smartphones wherever they are such as, relax at home, travel overseas and so on (Genova, 2010). According to (Stephen, 2009) normal mobile phone and laptops is included for consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s convenience and the functions increase the rate and satisfaction of the users especially students (Hahn, 2010). In other view, Social is very important factor in life, what is the use one has everything but donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a relationship. According to (Tikkanen, 2009) research Social needs interactions between individual, friends, family, group members as clubs, churches and so on. This needs certainly increases dependency on students and users on smartphones unconsciously gives satisfaction for users. It also allows user to be more versatile and increased usage for communication and maintaining relationships between and among individuals (Lippincott, 2010). 23 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS According to (Wei, 2006) research, it been said that user who are using smartphones are high involved in social needs and people who are needed social dependence easily discovered. Since, interaction or social networking has been included in smartphones it brings a lot of changes in social hike up (Morgan, 2010). The norm of keeping in touch with existing group of friends and contact especially students, create a chance for them to meet offline and encourages more engagement with peers and come up with beneficial idea of organizing charity and so on. Social network such twitter and Facebook pave ways for students to engage in activity as such (Raskin, 2006). Smart phones encourage users especially students to satisfy their needs, and they are able to connect with peers through social networking sites any time anywhere, which create satisfaction for students (Bridges et al, 2010). It can be said that smartphones are really vital and important mediator between satisfaction and ease of use everywhere and anytime (Wei, 2006). 24 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS . 6 Ã¢â¬â Conceptual Frameworks Usefulness Understandability StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Satisfaction Enjoyment Ease of Use 2. 7 Ã¢â¬â Summary This chapter comprises of usefulness, understandability, enjoyment and ease of use of smart phones towards satisfaction and it believed and proved the independent variable and dependent variable goes in hand in hand. It also contains conceptual framework to support. And literature reviews do support p ositively towards the research proposed. 25 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 3. 0 Ã¢â¬â Introduction Research methodology can be said as searching for knowledge and it is narrowed down to a certain topic, subject and title using a scientific and systematic manner. it is a way to solve problem systematically (Dr. Kothari, 2008). The main purpose why the research has been done is to determine whether the factors are affecting the satisfaction of smartphones among students. In order to test the hypothesis mentioned in chapter 2: literature review, a set of self-administered questions were developed. The main objective of this research is to study the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ perception towards smartphones satisfaction, the targeted population would be mainly those students in SEGI University who using smartphones. This chapter discusses the samples, sampling frame, data collection methods and statistical techniques 26 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS 3. 1 Ã¢â¬â Research Design Research design is basically about how this research have been done, its plan or structure which involves identifying the problem, then gather dataÃ¢â¬â¢s and lastly analyze and gain results there are lot of type of design to the research. Researcher have chosen the cross sectional design which involves to collect a collection of data on more than one case at one particular time frame. This is to collect a group of quantitative or quantifiable data related with variables. Where, researcher uses to analyze, understand the relationships and pattern. 250 questionnaire forms were collected from respondents via convenience method and snowball method. This study is only utilized quantitative research design. Researcher will analyze the score and result to know whether the variables do match the satisfaction for smart phones users. . 2 Ã¢â¬â Research Methodology Research methodology is basically about the method researcher used, either qualitative or quantitative. In this research quantitative been used, Quantitative method is a about group of data been collected using inferential approach which means the survey is based research where certain amount of sample of population is used to conduct the survey. This research uses questionnaires and the usually the information gained will be similar as it is been standardized. This is because every respondent who participate in this research are required to answer the same exact question. The survey data was collected using online survey tool which is Ã¢â¬ËGoogle document, and also through paper handouts. 27 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS 3. 3 Ã¢â¬â Questionnaire design The survey instrument used in this research is questionnaires where about two hundred (sets of questionnaire have been distributed to students in SEGI University and all the people in my Facebook friend list all over Klang Valley to get their responds accordingly. The questionnaires are to analyze and research few main factors which can effect satisfaction of smartphones among students: 1) Usefulness 2) Understandability 3) Enjoyment 4) Ease of use 5) Satisfaction In this questionnaire there are two section named as 1 and 2. The 1 section is mainly about demographic details which are designed to collect information on demographic details. (I. e. Gender, Age, highest qualification, smart phones brand). On the other hand, the second section is factor analysis. In this section there are 5 divisions which consist of usefulness, understandability, enjoyment, ease of use and satisfaction. The first division is usefulness. This division is created to measure the This usefulness of smartphones towards satisfaction as per respondents view. division has four statements that address this. Respondents were asked to rate the 28 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS agreement on a five point scale ranging from strongly agree (1) to strongly disagree (5) The second division is Understandability. This division is created to measure the understandability towards satisfaction. This division has four statements that address this. Respondents were asked to rate the agreement on a five point scale ranging from strongly agree (1) to strongly disagree (5) The third division is enjoyment. This division is created to measure the enjoyment towards satisfaction. This division has four statements that address this. Respondents were asked to rate the agreement on a five point scale ranging from strongly agree (1) to strongly disagree (5) The fourth division is Ease of Use. This division is created to measure the ease of use towards satisfaction. This division has four statements that address this. Respondents were asked to rate the agreement on a five point scale ranging from strongly agree (1) to strongly disagree (5) The fifth division is satisfaction. This division is created to measure the overall satisfaction on smart phones from the respondents. This division has three statements and one statement will be chosen. 29 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS 3. 4 -Samples The method that been performed is quantitative research method. As in this case survey. Cross sectional survey is done to gather information about usefulness, ease of use, enjoyment and understandability towards satisfaction among smart phones user. Below are criteria of potential sample. 1) Inclusion criteria a) Students aged between 19 and 25 years old in SEGI College in Malaysia were included. b) Students who are able to read and write in English language. c) Students with smart phones 2) Exclusion criteria a) Only students are allowed to participate in this research. b) Students who are unable to read and write in English language. c) Students who donÃ¢â¬â¢t own Smart phones. 0 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS 3. 5 Ã¢â¬â Sampling frame A total of two hundred fifty (250) questionnaires been distributed to the students within SEGI College as for data collection; in order to measure the respondents in different aspects to reach my research objective. The sampling method that is used is non-probability method. On-probability sampling can be narrowed down to two methods which are: convenience, snowball sampling (Babbie, 2010). As for this study, convenience sampling is used as it is easy to perform. 3. Ã¢â¬â Data collection methods Primary data type is used where questionnaires survey is done for data collection. Once all data is gathered, it been analyzed according to the objective of this research. Other than that, operationalization can be used as way to measure too as it defined where the variable is measured by explaining the process of defining each variable, as guidance in order to make consistent measurements. (Le Roy, 2008). This research sampling was conducted in SEGI University for Data collection, due to time, distance and communication barriers, it was not practical to conduct the survey in large scale. A total of two-hundred and fifty (250) sets of questionnaires were distributed through online and also handouts, however only about two-hundred (200) responses were received. 31 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS 3. 7 Ã¢â¬â Statistical techniques Questionnaires which have been collected after answered had been analyzed using SPSS analysis. This software is computer based software which is designed specifically for statistical analysis. In this software there are two models which are linear and no linear where linear model can make accurate analysis and reliable conclusion. Meanwhile, non- linear model is to improve the accuracy of prediction made. This SPSS software can run two tests first multiple regressions and simple regression compare means and reliability of the research. As for this study, IBM SPSS Statistic version 20. 0 is used to code and analyze the collected data. Respondents were questioned on the factors that determine their satisfaction on smart phones. A descriptive statistics that includes simple frequencies means and also percentages were computed using the demographic details from the respondents (i. e. gender, age and qualification), system. Moreover to test the hypothesis for each factor, statistical method such as Correlation was used. 32 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS 3. 8 Ã¢â¬â Pilot Test Pilot test is considered as an experiment in small scale to check the questionnaire reliability and validity for bigger scale. This test usually will be performed to identify the problem with materials and methods, so it can be corrected before proceeding. Pilot test is an important test to feasibility and usefulness of the research method used to collect information. As for this Research, (20) sets of questionnaire been distributed to check the reliability and validity of prepared question. The data have been collected and analyses using reliability test to indicate the reliability and validity of the question and below are the result for section 2: part 1 Ã¢â¬â part 5 Pilot test / Reliability Table 3. 8. 1 Ã¢â¬â Case Processing Summary N Valid Cases Excluded a Total 20 0 20 % 100. 0 . 0 100. 0 a. List wise deletion based on all variables in the procedure. Table 3. 8. 2 Ã¢â¬â Reliability Statistics CronbachÃ¢â¬â¢s Alpha . 976 N of Items 17 33 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS The table above 3. 8. 1 till 3. 8. 2 shows that there are really good internal consistency. The rate of 0. 976 in table 3. 8. 2 proved that this questionnaire is reliable enough to use these items to conduct the survey. 3. 9 Ã¢â¬â Limitation There are a lot of limitations, in this research one of it is the title is too narrow, it is only for students. Since the respondents are full of students it makes enjoyment and entertainment looked as much more important than any other variables. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s believed those different age groups have a different kind of importance and likeness. Time constraint, as this is the final semester and there a four other exam and assignment besides this research makes it harder. Besides that, there are limitations in respondents answer as well; this is because respondents might not answer the question honestly as they might have this attitude of reluctance to reveal certain information that might be personal. Respondents are more likely to manipulate their answers to look smart, just be nice by providing a positive answer or afraid being judge by researcher for their answer. This is certainly will be not reliable for the research. Besides that, people who donÃ¢â¬â¢t use smartphones also became a limitation as itÃ¢â¬â¢s hard to classify them. Other than that, respondents might not have the time for answering the questionnaire as they are rushing for their own agenda. 3. 9 A Summary In nutshell, this chapter comprises of Introduction, samples, sampling frame, data collection and statistical analysis. This has to be done to perform the research. 34 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS 4. 1 Ã¢â¬â Introduction This chapter is about analyzing, rate of response, reliability, demographic details and Factor analysis. . 2 Ã¢â¬â Rate of Response Off the 250 questionnaires that were distributed, 50 of the surveys were deemed invalid due to incomplete questionnaire. By the end of the study, 200 questionnaires were completed and used for analysis purposes, for a response rate of 80% Table 4. 2. 1 Reliability for 200 sets Case Processing Summary N Valid Cases Excluded a Total 200 0 200 % 100. 0 . 0 100. 0 a. List wise deletion based on all variables in the procedure. Tabel 4. 2. 2 Reliability Statistics CronbachÃ¢â¬â¢s Alpha . 976 N of Items 17 35 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS . 3 Ã¢â¬â Demographic details Table 4. 3. 1 Gender: Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Male 80 40. 0 60. 0 100. 0 40. 0 60. 0 100. 0 40. 0 100. 0 Valid Female 120 Total 200 Diagram 4. 3. 1 Gender 36 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS The percentage rate of male studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ respondents and female studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ respondents are 40% (80) participants and 60% (120) respectively. This shows that there are more female respondents for this study compare to male respondents, which can also indicate that there are more female smart phone user than male users. Table 4. 3. 2. Education: Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent SPM STPM 30 10 15. 0 5. 0 5. 0 25. 0 50. 0 100. 0 15. 0 5. 0 5. 0 25. 0 50. 0 100. 0 15. 0 20. 0 25. 0 50. 0 100. 0 A- Level 10 Valid Diploma 50 Degree Total 100 200 37 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS Diagram 4. 3. 2 Education In education you can see As for the highest qualification, the students with a Bachelor Degree shows the highest rate of 50 % which can mean that they will affect the largest part of the research compare to the other students. Those with a secondary level education show a rate of only 20%, whereas those with certificate / A-Levels / Foundation or equivalent and Diploma / Equivalent show a rate of 5% and 25% respectively. This also can mean that students with higher qualification are more aware and satisfy with the smartphones they have. 38 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS Table 4. 3. 3 Field of study Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Business 60 30. 0 70. 0 100. 0 30. 0 70. 0 100. 0 30. 0 100. 0 Valid Non-Business 140 Total 200 39 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS Diagram 4. 3. 4 Meanwhile, Field of study separated between business and Non business it shows 70% of participants are 70% and 30% were Business students. Table 4. 3. 4 Brand Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent 15. 0 20. 0 30. 0 65. 0 80. 0 100. 0 Iphone Blackberry HTC Valid Samsung Nokia Sony Erricson Total 30 10 20 70 30 40 200 15. 0 5. 0 10. 0 35. 0 15. 0 20. 0 100. 0 15. 0 5. 0 10. 0 35. 0 15. 0 20. 0 100. 0 40 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS Diagram 4. 3. 5 Brand As for brand, a total of seven types of phone brands were given. The first highest is Samsung with 35% second will be Sony Erricson with 20%. The third will be I phone and Nokia which share 15% respectively fourth HTC with 10% and lastly blackberry with 5%. 41 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS 4. 3. 5 Age analysis Descriptive Statistics N Age Range Minimum Maximum Mean 18. 00 30. 00 Std. Deviation 200 12. 00 22. 1000 2. 70678 Valid N (listwise) 200 As for age, the minimum is 18 and maximum will be 30 and all of them are students. 4. 4 Ã¢â¬â Factor analysis Abbreviation used: Usefulness = U, Understandability = UD, Enjoyment = E, Ease of use = EU, Satisfaction = S 4. . 1 Findings and analysis of the relationship between perceived usefulness and satisfaction of smart phones among students. In this section of study, the relationship between the perceived usefulness and satisfaction of smart phones among students is determined to confirm the following hypotheses: H1: There is no significant relationship betwe en perceived usefulness and satisfaction H2: There is a significant relationship between perceived usefulness and satisfaction In order to analyze the relationship between usefulness and satisfaction of smartphones among students, the correlations test was carried out. 2 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS Correlations Average_U Pearson 1 Correlation Average_U Sig. (2-tailed) N Pearson . 462** Correlation Average_Satisfaction Sig. (2-tailed) . 000 N 200 200 1 200 . 000 200 . 462** Average_Satisfaction **. Correlation is significant at the 0. 01 level (2-tailed). Table 4. 4. 1: Correlation test on the relationship between the perceived usefulness and satisfaction of smart phones among students. The correlation test was used to determine the significance of hypotheses. The results are presented as above. The p-values of 0. 000 and 0. 000 shows that usefulness and satisfaction on smart phones among students are related, the test shows a relationship between usefulness and satisfaction on smart phones among students. Therefore hypothesis H1 is rejected since hypothesis H2 is proved to be accepted as there is a significant relationship between usefulness and satisfaction on Smartphones among students. 43 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS 4. 4. Findings and analysis of the relationship between understandability and satisfaction of smart phones among students In this section of study, the relationship between the understandability and satisfaction of smart phones among students is determined to confirm the following hypotheses: H1: There is no significant relationship between understandability and satisfaction H2: There is a significant relationship between understandability and satisfaction In order to analyze th e relationship between understandability and satisfaction of smartphones among students, the correlations test was carried out Correlations Average_Satisfaction Pearson 1 Correlation Average_Satisfaction Sig. (2-tailed) N Pearson . 718** Correlation Average_UD Sig. (2-tailed) N . 000 200 200 1 200 . 000 200 Average_UD . 718** **. Correlation is significant at the 0. 01 level (2-tailed). Table 4. 4. : Correlation test on the relationship between the understandability and satisfaction of smart phones among students. 44 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS The correlation test was used to determine the significance of hypotheses. The results are presented as above. The p-values of 0. 000 and 0. 000 shows that understandability and satisfaction on smart phones among students are related, the test shows a relationship between understandability and satisfaction on smart phones among students. Therefore hypothesis H1 is rejected since hypothesis H2 is p roved to be accepted as there is a significant relationship between understandability and satisfaction on Smartphones among students. 4. 4. Findings and analysis of the relationship between enjoyment and satisfaction of smart phones among students In this section of study, the relationship between the enjoyment and satisfaction of smart phones among students is determined to confirm the following hypotheses: H1: There is no significant relationship between enjoyment and satisfaction H2: There is a significant relationship between enjoyment and satisfaction In order to analyze the relationship between enjoyment and satisfaction of smartphones among students, the correlations test was carried out 45 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS Correlations Average_Satisfaction Pearson 1 Correlation Average_Satisfaction Sig. (2-tailed) N Pearson . 756** Correlation Average_E Sig. (2-tailed) N . 000 200 200 1 200 . 000 200 . 756** Average_E **. Correlation i s significant at the 0. 01 level (2-tailed). Table 4. 4. 3: Correlation test on the relationship between the enjoyment and satisfaction of smart phones among students. The correlation test was used to determine the significance of hypotheses. The results are presented as above. The p-values of 0. 000 and 0. 000 shows that enjoyment and satisfaction on smart phones among students are related, the test shows a relationship between enjoyment and satisfaction on smart phones among students. Therefore hypothesis H1 is rejected since hypothesis H2 is proved to be accepted as there is a significant relationship between enjoyment and satisfaction on Smartphones among students. 46 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS 4. 4. 4 Findings and analysis of the relationship between ease of use and satisfaction of smart phones among students In this section of study, the relationship between the ease of use and satisfaction of smart phones among students is determined to confirm the following hypotheses: H1: There is no significant relationship between ease of use and satisfaction H2: There is a significant relationship between ease of use and satisfaction In order to analyze the relationship between ease of use and satisfaction of smartphones among students, the correlations test was carried out 47 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS Correlations Average Satisfaction Pearson 1 Correlation Average_Satisfaction Sig. (2-tailed) N Pearson . 865** Correlation Average_EU Sig. (2-tailed) N . 000 200 200 1 200 . 000 200 . 865** Average_EU **. Correlation is significant at the 0. 1 level (2-tailed). Table 4. 4. 4: Correlation test on the relationship between the understandability and satisfaction of smart phones among students. The correlation test was used to determine the significance of h ypotheses. The results are presented as above. The p-values of 0. 000 and 0. 000 shows that ease of use and satisfaction on smart phones among students are related, the test shows a relationship between ease of use and satisfaction on smart phones among students. Therefore hypothesis H1 is rejected since hypothesis H2 is proved to be accepted as there is a significant relationship between ease of use and satisfaction on Smartphones among students. 48 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS 4. 5 Regression: To find out the strongest and most influenced determinant to attain satisfaction, a regression test is used. This linear regression in the table below shows that, ease of use have a high R value compare to other variable which is 0. 865. It also means that ease of use plays a vital role in satisfaction among students. 49 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS Correlations Average Averag _Satisfac e_U tion Average_Satisfaction Pearso Average_U n Average_UD Correlat Average_E ion Average_EU Average_Satisfaction Average_U Sig. 1Average_UD tailed) Average_E Average_EU Average_Satisfaction Average_U N Average_UD Average_E Average_EU . 000 . 000 200 200 200 200 200 . 000 . 000 200 200 200 200 200 . 000 . 000 200 200 200 200 200 . .000 200 200 200 200 200 . 000 . 200 200 200 200 200 . 000 . 000 . .000 . 000 . 865 . .000 . 769 . 000 . .910 . 000 . 000 . 908 . 000 . 00 0 1. 000 . 000 . 000 . 756 . 840 . 938 1. 000 . 908 . 718 . 853 1. 000 . 938 . 910 . 462 1. 000 . 853 . 840 . 769 1. 000 . 462 . 718 . 756 . 865 Average _UD Averag e_E Average _EU Table 4. 5 50 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS 4. 6 Summary These chapters consisted of rate of response, reliability test, test on demographic and factor analysis. 51 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS CHAPTER 5 Ã¢â¬â CONCLUSION 5. 1 Ã¢â¬â Introduction This chapter includes Conclusion, recommendation and Reflection. 5. 2 Ã¢â¬â Conclusion The purpose of this study is to investigate the determinants of satisfaction on smart phones among students. There are four factors used in this study to find out whether it can obtain satisfaction towards the students. This research were extracted from various existing articles which are perceived usefulness of smartphones, perceived enjoyment that smartphones provide, perceived understandability, perceived ease of use towards satisfaction of smartphones among students. Based on the survey done on the four determinants towards satisfaction, the result shows a significant relationship between all of them, which conclude that, this, four determinant is important for satisfaction on smartphones among students. 5. 3 Ã¢â¬â Recommendation In this research, targeted samples were taken randomly from people who research see, and know. Therefore in future researcher may expand their research throughout Malaysia bigger sample size from all kind of class as from students to working adults should be taken for much bigger picture Secondly, this research is focused on determinant of satisfaction among students so in future researcher can study in detailed the other factors which can help to raise satisfaction. Lastly, a detailed research on the comparison between the users and non-users of smart phones can be done to determine the image and expectancy of users. 52 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS 5. 4 Ã¢â¬â Reflection Reflection basically means the act of reflecting or the state of being reflected, it can be also telling out what a researcher have gone through for months he takes up this research. Researchers have taken up the title Determinant of satisfaction of smart phones among students. This is because researcher had a deep interest in smart phones and always had a curiosity how to get to know and expand the knowledge in this section. This research personally have enlighten researcher in and out of smartphones through the reading of articles, it also have enlighten researcher with social perception and motive of users. The process of undertaking the project dint deviates in any way compare to proposal. Researchers have planned earlier for proposal itself and it just needed to expand it. Supervisor was really helpful in a way to gives more ideas to expand the literature reviews and matter which comes with it. The only thing that deviates from proposal is more word counts and vast information on smartphones. Researchers have included more informationÃ¢â¬â¢s on satisfaction and its relevance to users, business and corporate who might use it. Research project have a certain process and flow process as follows. Firstly, Identification of research problem is to determine the determinants to attain satisfaction in this process researcher learned that it is important to identify the problem in a situation. Secondly, problem and statement objective, in this process researcher learn to state the problem and objective of certain problem not only think about it. Thirdly, research question, in this process learn to ask a proper and relevant question for the problem to get a conclusion. Fourthly, literature review in this process researcher learn to use previous or past examples that related to the problem as reference and move in to the goal. Fifthly, quantitative research 53 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS ethods, in this process researcher have learned to find a proper channel to calculate and analyze the problems. Sixthly, survey instruments, in this process researcher have learn to communicate to users or people who related to study without being ask a lot of wrong questions. A proper questionnaire is a good answer. Seventhly, pilot test, in this process researcher have learn that even been assumed a proper question have been readied mistakes are there, correction is needed for perfection. Next, data collection, in this process researcher have learn that there a lot of way to communicate with person and media and surveys are one and relevant. Lastly, data analysis, in this researcher learned that there are always results for good or bad. And in this research it is good. There are a lot of limitations in this research, one of the main one is limitation on topic to student, the reason why researcher find this can be limitation is because, students are mostly prone to enjoyment and playing games, this might be a big change in the research perception. If in future researcher want to differently, researcher may expand the sample size to more than 500 samples and researcher would increase the class size from students to many other classes. This study can be helpful for all phones industry and itÃ¢â¬â¢s easier to get a large picture of usersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs in smartphones and sustainability of smartphone industry. 5. Ã¢â¬â Summary These chapters have included Conclusion, Recommendation and Reflection. 54 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS APPENDIX A: GANTT CHART OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES 2012 Activities /Month Research details Coordination with Relevant agencies and Parties Literature Review Questionnaire Design Pilot Testing Revision of questionnaires Selection of respondents Administration of Survey Data Analysis Report Writing Dissemination of draft for discussion Dissemination Report of final Topic/relevant April May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec 55 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS APPENDIX B: QUESTIONNAIRES Hi, my name is Emmanuel A/L Panpalan (SCM-013826), currently studying Bachelor of Accounting and Finance of Teesside University in SEGi University, Kota Damansara. I am conducting a research project to fulfill requirements for my Final year Thesis. The research is STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS. Your individual response will be kept private and confidential. My report will reveal group findings for academic presentations and publications only. Your participation in this study will contribute further to the field of communication in Malaysia. Thank you for participating in this research project. Background Instruction: Answer all questions Section 1 1. Gender: Male / Female 2. Age ______ 3. What is the highest education level you have completed? (Tick one only) o SPM o STPM o A-Level o Diploma 56 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS o Degree o Post-graduate 4. What is your major field of study? o Business o Non Business 5. What brand of smart phone do you use (Tick one only) o iPhone o Blackberry o HTC o Samsung o Nokia o LG o Sony Ericsson 57 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS Answer all questions Section 2 Factor Analysis Circle the number in the box provided for most appropriate response. Only ONE number needs to be circled for each question. Please answer ALL the questions in SECTION 2 according to the scale as below: Strongly DisagreeÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 5 DisagreeÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 4 NeutralÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 3 AgreeÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦2 Strongly AgreeÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦1 1. USEFULLNESS Find the Smartphone application useful 5 in my daily life Using the Smartphone application helps 5 me accomplish things more quickly Using the my Smartphone chances of application 5 achieving 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 improves things I find important I think App store provide the useful 5 4 3 2 1 58 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS Smartphone applications 2. UNDERSTABILITY App store clearly provides the classified 5 smart phone application menu App store provides detailed information 5 about the smart phone application App store provides detailed manual 5 about the smart phone application App store provides detailed information 5 about the smart phone application 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 function 3. ENJOYMENT I think it is fun to use Smartphone 5 application 4 3 2 1 I think the process of using Smartphone 5 application would be pleasant I think using Smartphone application 5 would bring me pleasure I enjoy using Smartphone application 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 59 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS 4. EASE OF USE My interaction with the Smartphone 5 application is clear and understandable Interaction with the Smartphone 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 application does not require a lot of my mental effort I find it easy to get the Smartphone 5 application to do what I want it to do I find the Smartphone application to be 5 easy to use 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 5. SATISFACTION My overall experience of Smartphone 5 application use was very satisfied. 4 3 2 1 ###END### Thank you very much for your participation If you have any additional thoughts, suggestions, questions, or comments, feel free to contact me via email at emmanuel_the_big@yahoo. com 60 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS REFERENCES 1) Hun Choi, Yoo-Jung Choi and Ki-Mun Kim 2012 The Understanding of Building Trust Model on Smartphone Application: Focusing on UsersÃ¢â¬â¢ Motivation, Viewed 3 October 2012 2) Mark Brownlow, (2012) Smartphone statistics and market share, http://www. email-marketing-reports. com/wireless-mobile/smartphone-statistics. htm Viewed 3 October 2012 3) Anusha Sethuraman, (2011) US Smart phones statistics, http://www. smartonline. com/mobile-2/us-smartphone-statistics-q1-2011-overview/ Viewed on 4 October 2012 4) Gordon Adams, (2004) Smart phones evaluation, http://inews. berkeley. edu/bcc/Fall2004/smartphones. html, Viewed on October 4, 2012 5) Report withiPhone,http://www. dailytech. om/Apple+Tops+JD+Power+Customer+Satisfactio n+Report+with+iPhone/article22684. htm, Viewed October 1, 2012 5:23 6) Ding Hooi Ting, Suet Fong Lim, Tanusina Siuly Patanmacia, Ca Gie Low, Gay Tiffany Kaiser, (2011) Apple Tops J. D. Power Customer Satisfaction Chuan Ker, (2011),Ã¢â¬ Dependency on sm artphone and the impact on purchase behaviourÃ¢â¬ , Young Consumers: Insight and Ideas for Responsible Marketers, Vol. 12 Iss: 3pp. 193 Ã¢â¬â 203, Viewed 4 October 2012 61 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS 7) Lai, f. , Griffin, m. , Babin. B. J. (2009). How quality, value, image, and satisfaction create loyalty at a Chinese telecom. Journal of business research, 62(10), 980-986, Viewed 4 October 2012 8) Hsi-Peng Lu, Philip Yu-Jen Su, (2009),Ã¢â¬ Factors affecting purchase intention on mobile shopping web sitesÃ¢â¬ , Internet Research, Vol. 19 Iss: 4 pp. 442 Ã¢â¬â 458, Viewed 4 October 2012 9) Nithi, N, de Lind van Wijngaarden, A 2011, Ã¢â¬ËSmart power management for mobile handsetsÃ¢â¬â¢, Bell Labs Technical Journal, 15, 4, pp. 149-168, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 2 November 2012. 10) Survey Says: Smart Phone Users Active But FrustratedÃ¢â¬â¢ 2011, Seybold Report: Analyzing Publishing Technologies, 11, 16, pp. 13-15, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 2 November 2012. 11) Goodman, S, Harris, A 2010, Ã¢â¬ËThe Coming African Tsunami of Information InsecurityÃ¢â¬â¢, Communications of the ACM, 53, 12, pp. 4-27, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 2 November 2012. 12) Gaughan, D 2011, Ã¢â¬ËThe enterprise app store Ã¢â¬â a promise of consumer ease of use? Ã¢â¬Ë , Enterprise Innovation, 7, 6, p. 12, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 2 November 2012. 13) Fern, G 2009, Ã¢â¬ËMaking the most of mobile technologyÃ¢â¬â¢, Manager: British Journal Of Administrative Management, 66, p. 30, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 2 November 2012 14) Motley, L 2011, Ã¢â¬ËGetting Smart with Smart PhonesÃ¢â¬â¢, ABA Bank Marketing, 43, 2, p. 32, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 2 November 2012. 62 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS 15) Hanley, M, Boostrom Jr. , R 2011, Ã¢â¬ËHow the Smartphone is Changing College Student Mobile Content Usage and Advertising Acceptance: An IMC PerspectiveÃ¢â¬â¢, International Journal Of Integrated Marketing Communications, 3, 2, pp. 49-64, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 2 November 2012. 16) Oliver R (1981) Measurement and evaluation of satisfaction processes in retail settings. J Retail 57(3):25Ã¢â¬â47 viewed 25 November 2012 17) Liao C, Palvia P, Chen J (2009) Information technology adoption behavior life cycle: toward A technology continuance theory. Int J Inf Manag 29(4):309Ã¢â¬â320 viewed 25 November 2012 18) Lynn M. Nagle,2011, RN, Ph, http://www. longwoods. om/content/22836, viewed 25 November 2012 19) Bagozzi, R. P, 2007), Ã¢â¬Å"The legacy of the technologyacceptance model and a proposal for a paradigm shiftÃ¢â¬ ,Journal of the Association for Information Systems, Vol. 8No. 4, pp. 243-54 Viewed 25 November 2012 20) Curran, J. M. and Meuter, M. L ,2007 , Ã¢â¬Å"Encouraging existing customers to switch to self-service technologies: put a little fun in their livesÃ¢â¬ , Journal of Marketing Theory and Practices, Vol. 15 No. 4, pp. 283-9. Viewed 26 November 2012 63 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AMONG STUDENTS 21) Dabholkar, P. and Bagozzi, R. P. (2002), Ã¢â¬Å"An attitudinal model of technology- ased self-service: moderating effects of consumer traits and situational factorsÃ¢â¬ , Journal of Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 30 No. 3, pp. 184-201. Viewed 26 November 2012 22) Nysveen, H. , Pedersen, P. E. and Helge, T, 2005, explaining intention to use mobile chat services: Moderating effects of genderÃ¢â¬ , Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 22 Nos 4/5, pp. 247-56. Viewed 27 November 2012 23) Pagani, M. 2004, Ã¢â¬Å"Determinants of adoption of third generation mobile multimedia servicesÃ¢â¬ , Journal of Interactive Marketing, Vol. 18 No. 3, pp. 46-59. Viewed 27 November 2012 24) Yang, K. and Jol ly, L. D. (2008), Ã¢â¬Å"Age cohort analysis in adoption of mobile data services: gen Xers versus baby boomersÃ¢â¬ , The Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 25 No. 5, pp. 272-80. Viewed 27 November 2012 25) Ellis, S 2011, Ã¢â¬ËAccess All AreasÃ¢â¬â¢, Screen Education, vol. 61, autumn, pp. 70- 76. Viewed November 2012 64 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINANTS OF SATISFACTION ON SMARTPHONES AM How to cite Determinants of Satisfaction on Smartphones Among Students (Malaysia), Essays
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A paper examining the complex issue of whaling with a focus on Japan. This paper examines the complex issue of whaling. In this paper the author explores the history of whaling while also incorporating the public opinion and issues being faced today. The focus of the paper is on whaling in Japan. Table of Contents: Introduction World Whaling History Japan?s Whaling History Whaling ? The Issue International Whaling Commission (IWC) History 1982 Result of Moratorium Public Preservationist Conservationist Japan Culture Perspective Result of Moratorium Conclusion From paper: ?Reminiscing about the ocean always creates the sense of vast expanse, strength and beauty; hence, it is no wonder that the whale, the greatest living creature on earth, living in the ocean, is perceived as an important animal. Due to the majestic beauty of whales, they have become icons through folklore and stories in many cultures. As whales are not subjected to national borders, they migrate freely across and through the waters of national jurisdiction; hence, different people have different views about the whales. We will write a custom essay sample on Whaling in Japan: The Issue of Whaling or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page ?